Thucydides funeral oration

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Thucydides funeral oration

Never was this better demonstrated then at the battle of Thermopylae. Several hundred Greeks, led by King Leonidas of Sparta and his personal body guard of three hundred Spartans, made a brave and gallant stand against a vastly larger Persian force.

Only after an act of treason by a Greek, were the Persians able to surround and destroy the Spartans.

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Ordered to stand firm and hold the pass of Thucydides funeral oration against the Persians, the Spartans refused to retreat and were eventually defeated.

But true to their orders and loyal to their king, the Spartan stand at the pass is one of the bravest accounts of men in battle. Section IV And V. Lacedaemon and Athens, which were the two most powerful cities of Greece, and the cities against which Xerxes was most exasperated, were not indolent or negligent while so formidable an enemy was approaching.

Having received intelligence long before of the designs of that prince, they had sent spies to Sardis, in order to have a more exact information of the number and quality of his forces. These spies were seized and as they were just on the point of being put to death, Xerxes countermanded it, and gave orders that they should be conducted through his army and then sent back without any harm being done to them.

Thucydides called his account of two decades of war between Athens and Sparta “a possssion for all time,” and indeed it is the first and still most famous work in the Western historical tradition. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian This piece is a funeral oratory, a speech written to honor fallen Athenian heroes at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War. At such a time of high emotions and patriotism – Pericles has not one theme but several. In , shortly after the Peloponnesian War had broken out, Pericles delivered his famous Funeral Oration to commemorate those troops who had already fallen in battle.

At their return, the Grecians understood what they had to apprehend from so potent an enemy. The people of Argos offered a considerable succor, on condition they should have an equal share of the authority as either of the two kings of Sparta.

This was granting them a great deal: The Argives were not contented with this offer, and refused to enter into a league with the Grecians, without considering, that if they suffered them to be destroyed, their own ruin must inevitably follow.

He promised to assist them with two hundred vessels of three benches of oars, with an army of twenty thousand foot and two thousand horse, two thousand light-armed soldiers, and the same number of bow-men and slingers, and to supply the Grecian army with provisions during the whole war, on condition they would make him generalissimo of all the forces both by land and sea.

The Lacedaemonians were highly offended at such a proposal. Gelon then abated somewhat in his demands, and promised the same, provided he had at least the command either of the fleet or of the army. This proposal was strenuously opposed by the Athenians, who made answer that they alone had a right to command the fleet, in case the Lacedaemonians were willing to give it up.

Gelon had a more substantial reason for not leaving Sicily unprovided with troops, which was the approach of the formidable army of the Carthaginians, commanded by Amilcar, which consisted of three hundred thousand men.

Thucydides funeral oration

But they advanced no farther than to the coasts of Laconia, pretending they were hindered by contrary winds, but in reality waiting to see the success of an engagement, that they might afterwards range themselves on the side of the conqueror. The most able and experienced captains, terrified at the greatness of the danger, had taken the resolution of not presenting themselves as candidates.

There was a certain citizen at Athens, whose name was Epicydes, who had some eloquence, but in other respects was a person of no merit, was in disrepute for his want of courage, and notorious for his avarice. Notwithstanding all which, it was apprehended, that, in the assembly of the people, the votes would run in his favor.

Themistocles, who knew very well that in the present state of affairs he was the only person capable of commanding, did for that reason make no scruple of employing bribes and presents to remove his competitor: We may here, I think, very justly apply to Themistocles what Titus Livius says of Fabius on a like occasion.Thucydides called his account of two decades of war between Athens and Sparta “a possssion for all time,” and indeed it is the first and still most famous work in the Western historical tradition.

It was an established Athenian practice by the late 5th century to hold a public funeral in honour of all those who had died in war. The remains of the dead were left in a tent for three days so that offerings could be made. Then a funeral procession was held, with ten cypress coffins carrying the remains, one for each of the Athenian tribes, and another for the remains that could not be.

Thucydides wrote that the speech was reproduced from his memory and was a loose account only. This speech became known as Pericles' Funeral Oration, and it occurred in B.C., just after the start of war.

When Pericles was asked to give the official funeral oration for the Athenian soldiers who had died at one of the opening battles of the Peloponnesian War, he took the occasion not only to praise the dead, but Athens itself, in a speech which has been praised as enshrining the highest ideals of democracy and condemned as blatant propaganda on behalf of a warlike, imperialistic state.

Pericles' funeral oration is a speech written by Thucydides for his history of the Peloponnesian War.

Eunapius, Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists () pp English translation

Pericles delivers the oration not only to bury the dead, but to praise democracy. The people of Athens, including those from the countryside whose land was being pillaged by their enemies, were kept. Jan 04,  · Thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus, in Asia Minor, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece.

Many, most notably Aristotle, regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition.

Libanius, "Julian the Emperor" (). Monody: Funeral Oration for Julian