Luther was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. His family moved to Mansfeld inwhere his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters  and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council; in he was elected as a town councilor.
Abstract The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. We review studies that have responded to this critique by employing a variety of innovative research designs to identify the causal effect of father absence, including studies using lagged dependent variable models, growth curve models, individual fixed effects models, sibling fixed effects models, natural experiments, and propensity score matching models.
Our assessment is that studies using more rigorous designs continue to find negative effects of father absence on offspring well-being, although the magnitude of these effects is smaller than what is found using traditional cross-sectional designs.
These findings are of interest to family sociologists and family demographers because of what they tell us about family structures and family processes; they are also of interest to scholars of inequality and mobility because of what they tell us about the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage.
The literature on father absence has been criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to account for reverse causality, for omitted variable bias, or for heterogeneity across time and subgroups.
Indeed, some researchers have argued that the negative association between father absence and child well-being is due entirely to these factors.
This critique is well founded because family disruption is not a random event and because the characteristics that cause father absence are likely to affect child well-being through other pathways.
Finally, there is good evidence that father absence effects play out over time and differ across subgroups. Unless these factors are taken into account, the so-called effects of father absence identified in these studies are likely to be biased.
Researchers have responded to concerns about omitted variable bias and reverse causation by employing a variety of innovative research designs to identify the causal effect of father absence, including designs that use longitudinal data to examine child well-being before and after parents separate, designs that compare siblings who differ in their exposure to separation, designs that use natural experiments or instrumental variables to identify exogenous sources of variation in father absence, and designs that use matching techniques that compare families that are very similar except for father absence.
In this article, we review the studies that use one or more of these designs. We limit ourselves to articles that have been published in peer-reviewed academic journals, but we impose no restrictions with regard to publication date note that few articles were published before or with regard to the disciplinary affiliation of the journal.
Using these inclusion rules, we identified 47 articles that make use of one or more of these methods of causal inference to examine the effects of father absence on outcomes in one of four domains: Our goal is to see if, on balance, these studies tell a consistent story about the causal effects of father absence and whether this story varies across different domains and across the particular methods of causal inference that are employed within each domain.
We also note where the evidence base is large and where it is thin. We conclude by suggesting promising avenues for future research. Traditional approaches to estimating the effect of father absence on offspring well-being have relied primarily on ordinary least squares OLS or logistic regression models that treat offspring well-being as a function of father absence plus a set of control variables.
These models are attractive because the data requirements are minimal they can be estimated with cross-sectional data and because they can accommodate complex specifications of the father absence effect, such as differences in the timing of father absence early childhood versus adolescencedifferences in postdivorce living arrangements whether the mother lives alone or remarriesand differences by gender, race, and social class.
Interpreting these OLS coefficients as causal effects requires the researcher to assume that the father absence coefficient is uncorrelated with the error term in the regression equation.
This assumption will be violated if a third omitted variable influences both father absence and child well-being or if child well-being has a causal effect on father absence that is not accounted for in the model.
There are good reasons for believing that both of these factors might be at work and so the assumption might not hold. Until the late s, researchers who were interested in estimating the effect of father absence on child well-being typically tried to improve the estimation of causal effects by adding more and more control variables to their OLS models, including measures of family resources e.
Unfortunately, controlling for multiple background characteristics does not eliminate the possibility that an unmeasured variable is causing both family structure and child well-being. Adding control variables to the model can also create new problems if the control variables are endogenous to father absence.
See Ribar for a more detailed discussion of cross-sectional models.
This approach requires longitudinal data that measure child well-being at two points in timeone observation before and one after the separation.The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest. A report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.
It hypothesized that the destruction of the Black nuclear family structure would hinder further progress toward economic and political equality.
Parents can take heart from the growing body of research into the father effect, knowing that greater involvement by fathers is highly beneficial to children. All parents, whether male or female, can learn from the positive findings on the father effect by providing children with.
10 Signs You Know What Matters. Values are what bring distinction to your life. You don't find them, you choose them.
|Absent Father & His Daughter’s Love-Life||Fatherless children are at risk.|
|Martin Luther - Wikipedia||Growing up without a father figure has a profound effect on boys that lasts into manhood.|
|Helping Families Cope with Perinatal Loss||Today we would be shocked if, instead of talking his partner through each painful contraction, Dad was downing a beer at the pub or nervously pacing up and down the hospital corridor.|
|The Effect on Men That Grow Up Without a Father Figure | Our Everyday Life||Divorce may widen distance between teens, fathers January 9, The typical distancing from parents by adolescents is exacerbated by divorce for fathers, but not for mothers, according to a recent study published in the Journal of Marriage and Family.|
|The Church Fathers on Baptismal Regeneration - Called to Communion||Single ParentsDivorce and Break-UpsFathers Growing up without a fatherwhether that's due to divorce, a nonmarital birth, or a father's deathis associated with a host of negative effects.|
And when you do, you're on the path to fulfillment. The Father Effect: Positive Effects of Involved Dads Author // Michelle Higgins. Labels: Issue #34, And when asked what single change would make the greatest difference in their ability to juggle work and family life, fathers named workplace flexibility as their top demand.
Appearing in Issue # Order A Copy Today The Father Effect. Father Figure Wanted: the effect of absence of a father in a woman’s love relationships. Their disproportionate participation in communism, Marxism, and socialism.
Marxism is an exemplar of a universalist ideology in which ethnic and nationalist barriers within the society and indeed between societies are eventually removed in the interests of social harmony and a sense of communal interest.