In order to read with comprehension a reader must simultaneously be able to automatically and fluently decode the text and competently understand the language in which the text is written. People lacking in either decoding fluency or general language comprehension skills have been shown to have correspondingly impaired reading comprehension abilities Hoover and Gough,
Learning to read is a natural process. It has long been argued that learning to read, like learning to understand spoken language, is a natural phenomenon.
It has often been suggested that children will learn to read if they are simply immersed in a literacy-rich environment and allowed to develop literacy skills in their own way. This pernicious belief that learning to read is a natural process resulting from rich text experiences is surprisingly prevalent in education—despite the fact that learning to read is not only unnatural, it is one of the most unnatural things humans do.
There is a difference between learning to read text and learning to understand a spoken language. Learning to understand speech is indeed a natural process; starting before birth, children tune in to spoken language in their environment, and as soon as they are able, they begin to incorporate a language.
If the linguistic environment is not sufficiently rich or if it is confusing, the innate drive to find a language is so strong that, if necessary, children will create a language of their own examples of this include twin languages and pidgin languages.
Given the opportunity, children will naturally develop all of the essential comprehension skills for the language to which they are exposed with little structured or formal guidance. By contrast, reading acquisition is not natural. While the ability to understand speech evolved over many, many thousands of years, reading and writing are human inventions that have been around for merely a few thousand years.
It has been only within the past few generations that some cultures have made any serious attempt to make literacy universal among their citizens. These staggering numbers provide evidence that reading is a skill that is quite unnatural and difficult to learn.
Children will eventually learn to read if given enough time. This is arguably the second most pernicious myth, and it is closely related to the first.
Many who claim that reading is natural also claim that children should be given time to develop reading skills at their own pace. This is a double-edged sword because, while it is true that children should be taught to read in developmentally appropriate ways, we should not simply wait for children to develop reading skills in their own time.
When a child is not developing reading skills along with his or her peers, that situation should be of great concern. Over time, the gap between children who have well-developed literacy skills and those who do not gets wider and wider.
In the early grades, the literacy gap is relatively easy to cross, and with diagnostic, focused instruction, effective teachers can help children who have poor literacy skills become children with rich literacy skills.
However, if literacy instruction needs are not met early, then the gap widens—the rich get richer, and the poor get poorer—until it gets so wide that bridging it requires extensive, intensive, expensive, and frustrating remedial instruction. The gap reaches this nearly insurmountable point very early.
Research has shown that if a child is not reading grade-appropriate materials by the time he or she is in the fourth grade, the odds of that child ever developing good reading skills are slim. Reading programs are "successful.From 2nd through 8th grade, there is a fairly reliable formula I use -- multiply the student's age by 12 to get a target CWPM (Correct Words Per Minute) -- so a 10 year old, should be reading about words per minute (give or take 10%).
Research Definition used by the National Institutes of Health. Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.
Children who are diagnosed with dyslexia have difficulty in reading. Reading is the most common difficulty a child with dyslexia faces. A child could face difficulty whilst reading due to the fluency of words (Peer and Reid, ). College Bound: Prepare Ahead; Demystifying the College Application Process for Kids with LD and ADHD; College Bound: SAT or ACT?
Students with LD: Preparing for . One reason why students do poorly in mathematics problem solving tasks and on achievement tests is a lack of good reading, comprehension, and writing skills.
Intervention to reduce reading difficulties in students with dyslexia will be discussed with a focus on stages of intervention in England, issues associated with intervention and also focus on a major world-wide programme: Reading Recovery.