Police ethics and values under r a 8551 in philippines

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Police ethics and values under r a 8551 in philippines

What Has Intrinsic Value? For a long time, philosophers appear to have thought that the notion of intrinsic value is itself sufficiently clear to allow them to go straight to the question of what should be said to have intrinsic value. Not even a potted history of what has been said on this matter can be attempted here, since the record is so rich.

Rather, a few representative illustrations must suffice. In his dialogue Protagoras, Plato [— B. For example, at one point Socrates says that the only reason why the pleasures of food and drink and sex seem to be evil is that they result in pain and deprive us of future pleasures Plato, Protagoras, e.


He concludes that pleasure is in fact good as such and pain bad, regardless of what their consequences may on occasion be. Many philosophers have followed Plato's lead in declaring pleasure intrinsically good and pain intrinsically bad.

Over the course of the more than two thousand years since this was written, this view has been frequently endorsed.

Like Plato, Aristotle does not take pleasure and pain to be the only things that are intrinsically good and bad, although some have maintained that this is indeed the case.

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This more restrictive view, often called hedonism, has had proponents since the time of Epicurus [— B. Most philosophers who have written on the question of what has intrinsic value have not been hedonists; like Plato and Aristotle, they have thought that something besides pleasure and pain has intrinsic value.

One of the most comprehensive lists of intrinsic goods that anyone has suggested is that given by William Frankena Frankenapp.

Presumably a corresponding list of intrinsic evils could be provided.

Police ethics and values under r a 8551 in philippines

Almost any philosopher who has ever addressed the question of what has intrinsic value will find his or her answer represented in some way by one or more items on Frankena's list. Suppose that you were confronted with some proposed list of intrinsic goods.

It would be natural to ask how you might assess the accuracy of the list. How can you tell whether something has intrinsic value or not? On one level, this is an epistemological question about which this article will not be concerned. See the entry in this encyclopedia on moral epistemology.

On another level, however, this is a conceptual question, for we cannot be sure that something has intrinsic value unless we understand what it is for something to have intrinsic value.

What Is Intrinsic Value? For the moment, though, let us ignore this complication and focus on what it means to say that something is valuable for its own sake as opposed to being valuable for the sake of something else to which it is related in some way.

Perhaps it is easiest to grasp this distinction by way of illustration. Suppose that someone were to ask you whether it is good to help others in time of need. If you were then asked why it is good that people's needs be satisfied, you might be puzzled. Or perhaps you would again seek to explain the fact that it is good that people be pleased in terms of something else that you take to be good.

It is at this point that you will have arrived at intrinsic goodness cf. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, a. That which is intrinsically good is nonderivatively good; it is good for its own sake. That which is not intrinsically good but extrinsically good is derivatively good; it is good, not insofar as its extrinsic value is concerned for its own sake, but for the sake of something else that is good and to which it is related in some way.

Intrinsic value thus has a certain priority over extrinsic value. The latter is derivative from or reflective of the former and is to be explained in terms of the former. It is for this reason that philosophers have tended to focus on intrinsic value in particular. The account just given of the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic value is rough, but it should do as a start.

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Certain complications must be immediately acknowledged, though. First, there is the possibility, mentioned above, that the terms traditionally used to refer to intrinsic value in fact refer to more than one concept; again, this will be addressed later in this section and the next.

Another complication is that it may not in fact be accurate to say that whatever is intrinsically good is nonderivatively good; some intrinsic value may be derivative.

Police ethics and values under r a 8551 in philippines

This issue will be taken up in Section 5 when the computation of intrinsic value is discussed; it may be safely ignored for now.

Still another complication is this. Roughly, what this means is that, if something has value, it will have this value in virtue of certain nonevaluative features that it has; its value can be attributed to these features.

For example, the value of helping others in time of need might be attributed to the fact that such behavior has the feature of being causally related to certain pleasant experiences induced in those who receive the help. Suppose we accept this and accept also that the experiences in question are intrinsically good.

In saying this, we are barring the complication to be discussed in Section 5 taking the value of the experiences to be nonderivative. Nonetheless, we may well take this value, like all value, to be supervenient on something.Through teaching and research, we educate people who will contribute to society and develop knowledge that will make a difference in the world.

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