It is heated, and personal, and must, to many people, seem arcane. Who really cares, today, whether or not the Founding Fathers technically saw the nation as one based on slavery, when the reality was that the Constitution permitted the institution? So why does this issue matter so much?
Both the retrospective and prospective uses also raise the relation between legal and moral responsibility. Many important theories of responsibility relate to legal concerns, which will be discussed in a later section.
As we pursue these topics, there is also the difficulty of seeing how they interrelate, so that it makes sense that we use the same word to raise each issue.
The discussion begins with the topics which philosophers have most often discussed: Moral Agency Normal human adults represent our paradigm case of responsible agents. What is distinctive about them, that we accord them this status? Thinking of retrospective responsibility in particular, why can be held accountable for their actions — justly praised or blamed, deservedly punished or rewarded?
The philosophical literature has explored three broad approaches to moral agency: Human beings have free will, that is, distinctive causal powers or a special metaphysical status, that separate them from everything else in the universe; Human beings can act on the basis of reason s ; Human beings have a certain set of moral or proto-moral feelings.
The first approach, although historically important, has largely been discredited by the success of modern science.
Science provides, or promises, naturalistic explanations of such phenomena as the evolution of the human species and the workings of the brain. Almost all modern philosophers approach responsibility as compatibilists — that is, they assume that moral responsibility must be compatible with causal or naturalistic explanation of human thought and action, and therefore reject the metaphysical idea of free will.
There can be terminological confusion here. Among modern compatibilists, a contest remains, however, between the second and third approaches — positions that are essentially Kantian and Humean in inspiration. It is indisputable, however, that our rationality is at the centre of his picture of moral agency.
Kant himself does not speak of responsibility — the word was only just coming into the language of his day — but he does have much to say about imputation Zurechnungthat is, the basis on which actions are imputed to a person.
Kant was principally concerned with evaluation of the self.
Although he occasionally mentions blame mutual accountabilityhis moral theory is really about the basis on which a person treats herself as responsible.
The core of his answer is that a rational agent chooses to act in the light of principles — that is, we deliberate among reasons. Therefore standards of rationality apply to us, and when we fail to act rationally this is, simply and crudely, a Bad Thing.
It is important to be aware that Kant sees reason as having moral content, so that there is a failure of rationality involved when we do something immoral — for instance, by pursuing our self-interest at the expense of others.
Even if we sometimes feel no inclination to take account of others, reason still tells us that we should, and can motivate us to do so.
David Hume denied that reason can provide us with moral guidance, or the motivation to act morally. He is famous for his claim that "Reason is wholly inactive, and can never be the source of so active a principle as conscience, or a sense of morals" A Treatise of Human Nature, book 3, part 1, sect.
If we are moral agents, this is because we are equipped with certain tendencies to feel or desire, dispositions that make it seem rational to us to act and think morally.
Company’s constitution. QUESTION 1 Issue: the issue about company’s constitution and whether the loan contract between ABC bank and Sambal Pty Ltd is invalid. The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of arteensevilla.com first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress; the executive, consisting of the. Questions On The Constitution Of The United States. It this paper we will discuss three questions concerning the Constitution of the United States. The first question is; 1) is the government proposed by the Constitution a good idea for this country? State Constitution Essay Montana, the 41st state, began with a territorial government. In.
Hume himself stressed our tendency to feel sympathy for others and our tendency to approve of actions that lead to social benefits and to disapprove of those contrary to the social good. Another important class of feelings concern our tendencies to feel shame or guilt, or more broadly, to be concerned with how others see our actions and character.
A Humean analysis of responsibility will investigate how these emotions lead us to be responsive to one another, in ways that support moral conduct and provide social penalties for immoral conduct.
This classic essay underlined the role of "reactive sentiments" or "reactive attitudes" — that is, emotional responses such as resentment or shame — in practices of responsibility. The basic criticisms that each position makes of the other are simple.
Kantians are vulnerable to the charge that they do not give a proper account of the role of feeling and emotion in the moral life. Humeans are vulnerable to the charge that they cannot give any account of the validity of reasoning beyond the boundaries of what we might feel inclined to endorse or reject: Can the Humean really hold that moral reasoning has any validity for people who do not feel concern for others?Teacher's Edition with Constitution Discussion & Essay Questions designed by master teachers and experts who have taught Constitution.
The United Kingdom does not have a codified arteensevilla.comr, a number of texts are considered to be constitutional, such that the "constitution of the United Kingdom" or "British constitution" may refer to a number of historical and momentous laws and principles that make up the country's body arteensevilla.com the term "UK constitution" is sometimes said to refer to an "unwritten" or.
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Free English School Essays. We have lots of essays in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions. Framers of the Constitution Words | 5 Pages. The Framers of the Constitution and the Republicanism The constitution is the supreme law of the land.
Even though it is the supreme law of the land, it is not well defined; it isn’t specific on multiple areas. Because of that, the constitution has been misjudged and miss interpreted in the past.
The American Constitution Essay - The American Constitution The basis of all law in the United States is the Constitution. This Constitution is a document written by "outcasts" of England. The Constitution of the United States sets forth the nation's fundamental laws.
It establishes the form of the national government and defines the . U.S. Constitution Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens.
Citizens are expected to understand the rules that our government has presented to us, abide by these rules for our own well being and freedom, and serve our communities and government back.