Priority has therefore been given to a range of measures for run-off and soil erosion control. One such measure, the use of stone bunds built on natural contour lines, has been promoted and supported by governments, NGOs, extension agents and farmers for more than 25 years and is now widely used in the Sahel. The best results are often achieved when contour stone bunds are used in combination with the planting of grass and trees on the contour lines. In wetter years they help to reduce the climate-induced risk of run-off and erosion.
Globalization and Water Globalization and Water Globalization, which refers to the increasing integration and interdependence of countries, is a major trend shaping world affairs around the globe.
Never before has it been so likely that the bananas we eat, the music CDs we listen to, the shirts we wear, the cars we drive, and the movies we watch were produced in another country. Globalization affects not only the production and consumption of products, but also culture, security, the environmentand the exchange of ideas.
Globalization also has important implications for environmental challenges such as deforestation, climate change, pollutionbiodiversity loss, and water resources.
Globalization Trends Globalization is an abstract concept that refers to a complex process involving political, economic, and sociocultural changes. Certainly it is not a new process, because the world has been globalizing for several centuries.
However, much has been written about its intensification since the s.
Many forces are acting to speed globalization trends. This acceleration is due to emerging technologies particularly information and communicationdeepening worldwide acceptance of markets, and increasing free-trade activity.
Globalization can be viewed as the intensification of worldwide social relations, which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many kilometers away, and vice versa.
Nations, international institutions, corporations, and individuals all are affected. Globalization can be defined as "a process that deepens the extent and form of cross-border transactions among peoples, assets, goods and services and that deepens the economic interdependence between and among globalizing entities, which may be private or public institutions or governments.
Trade liberalization—increased circulation of goods and services around the world; and Financial liberalization—increased circulation of capital.
As globalization challenges nations, a backlash has grown against the effects of globalization trends. Protests against globalization have garnished much media attention.
Sinceinternational meetings have been held in Seattle, Washington; Washington, D. These globalization trends have important implications for the Earth's environment, especially water resources.
France; and Quebec City, Canada, to name a few. Protests have caused some international organizations to postpone or even cancel their meetings.
Globalization is extending the scope of public policy beyond national borders and public policy is increasingly becoming influenced by global conditions. The causes of public policy problems can often lie far beyond a country's boundaries, leaving a nation to deal only the symptoms of a problem that lie within its decision-making power.
This can easily be seen with transboundary water issues.
In a globalizing world, the types of public policy problems are increasingly complex as more and more policy issues cut across traditional disciplinary boundaries and bureaucratic expertise.
Globalization also has the effect of shortening the amount of time that decisionmakers have to develop new policies and to make key decisions.
Formal policy-making institutions—national legislatures, international law, government agencies, and multilateral institutions—often lack the speed and scope to obtain and use crucial information needed to formulate effective policy.
Impacts on the Environment and Water Resources In a globalizing system, environmental policy issues are intricately bound together with issues of trade policy, human rights, and economic security. For example, the U.Evaluating the effects of best management practices (BMPs) in agricultural watersheds is often complicated by significant temporal variability in weather and hydrologic conditions .
BMPs are increasingly being used by decision makers to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution while improving productivity for the farmers . Environmental Management Practices 19 A clean environment plays an important role in the prevention of hospital-associated infections (HAI).
Environmental Management Practices 21 outside window. The door/s to the aisle or other rooms should be kept closed use water purification units.
Water scarcity or water crisis or water shortage is the deficiency of adequate water resources that can meet the water demands for a particular region. Whenever there is a lack of access to potable and fresh water for drinking and sanitation, the situation means that the water is scarce.
Radioactive waste (or nuclear waste) is a material deemed no longer useful that has been contaminated by or contains radionuclides. Radionuclides are unstable atoms of an element that decay, or disintegrate spontaneously, emitting energy in the form of radiation. Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles Edited by Richard Helmer and Ivanildo Hespanhol Published on behalf of.
Effects of water use and management practices on the environment Short-term effects: Because agriculture is the biggest user of water, conservation of water in agriculture has the most significant effect on sustainable water use.