To show a general reading audience perhaps readers of a popular science magazine that genetically engineered crops are needed and safe to consume by discussing the development of a successful genetically engineered crop, the FLAVR SAVR tomato. One only has to walk down an aisle loaded with gleaming red tomatoes, juicy melons, fresh potatoes, and a plethora of other vegetables and fruits and gather whatever captures one's fancy or appetite. A person living in a Westernized culture often takes for granted the hard work, resource usage, and waste that occurs to bring food to him. Tomatoes, for example, currently follow a long and difficult route to the supermarket.
History of genetic engineering Nature and traditional agriculture[ edit ] Multiple natural mechanisms allow gene flow from one species to another.
A hybrid cereal grain was created inby crossing wheat and rye. The first plant produced in that way came inan antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. It had a longer shelf life, because it took longer to soften after ripening. In the leaders of the three research teams that first applied genetic engineering to crops, Robert FraleyMarc Van Montagu and Mary-Dell Chiltonwere awarded the World Food Prize for improving the "quality, quantity or availability" of food in the world.
Genetic engineering techniques Plants Solanum chacoense being transformed using agrobacterium Genetically engineered crops have genes added or removed using genetic engineering techniques,  originally including gene gunselectroporationmicroinjection and agrobacterium.
Gene guns also known as biolistics "shoot" direct high energy particles or radiations against  target genes into plant cells. It is the most common method. DNA is bound to tiny particles of gold or tungsten which are subsequently shot into plant tissue or single plant cells under high pressure.
The accelerated particles penetrate both the cell wall and membranes. This method has been applied successfully for many cultivated crops, especially monocots like wheat or maize, for which transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been less successful.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation is another common technique. Agrobacteria are natural plant parasites. To create a suitable environment for themselves, these Agrobacteria insert their genes into plant hosts, resulting in a proliferation of modified plant cells near the soil level crown gall.
The genetic information for tumor growth is encoded on a mobile, circular DNA fragment plasmid. When used in genetic engineering the bacterial T-DNA is removed from the bacterial plasmid and replaced with the desired foreign gene. The bacterium is a vectorenabling transportation of foreign genes into plants.
This method works especially well for dicotyledonous plants like potatoes, tomatoes, and tobacco. Agrobacteria infection is less successful in crops like wheat and maize. Electroporation is used when the plant tissue does not contain cell walls.
In this technique, "DNA enters the plant cells through miniature pores which are temporarily caused by electric pulses. Introducing new genes into plants requires a promoter specific to the area where the gene is to be expressed.
For instance, to express a gene only in rice grains and not in leaves, an endosperm -specific promoter is used.
The codons of the gene must be optimized for the organism due to codon usage bias. Types of modifications[ edit ] Transgenic[ edit ] Transgenic plants have genes inserted into them that are derived from another species.
The inserted genes can come from species within the same kingdom plant to plant or between kingdoms for example, bacteria to plant. In many cases the inserted DNA has to be modified slightly in order to correctly and efficiently express in the host organism.
Transgenic plants are used to express proteins like the cry toxins from B. Some breeders and scientists argue that cisgenic modification is useful for plants that are difficult to crossbreed by conventional means such as potatoesand that plants in the cisgenic category should not require the same regulatory scrutiny as transgenics.
InChinese researcher Gao Caixia filed patents on the creation of a strain of wheat that is resistant to powdery mildew. The strain lacks genes that encode proteins that repress defenses against the mildew. The researchers deleted all three copies of the genes from wheat's hexaploid genome.
No field trials were immediately planned.Introduction History: Revlon is a universal company that sells products for skin care, cosmetics, personal care, fragrance and professional products.
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History of the FLAVR SAVR Tomato Scientists at Calgene, Inc. began research in the ’s on the FLAVR SAVR tomato, a tomato that would not soften while ripening and could, therefore, be left on the vine until it ripened naturally.
To create the transgenic tomato, a gene from E. coli (a bacterium which occurs naturally in the mammalian. Google Inc., American search engine company, founded in by Sergey Brin and Larry Page that is a subsidiary of the holding company Alphabet Inc. More than 70 percent of worldwide online search requests are handled by Google, placing it at the heart of most Internet users’ experience.
Its headquarters are in Mountain View, California. Paralleling Calgene's efforts to develop the PG-antisense tomato lines, the company began to gain experience in the conventional fresh-market tomato business and to meet with community leaders, media representatives and consumers in Davis and Chicago, the two sites selected for initial introduction of the FLAVR SAVR tomato.
References I. Introduction A. Regulatory History In accordance with 21 CFR , Calgene, Inc., submitted to FDA on November 26, , a request for advisory opinion regarding whether the kan r gene, a selectable marker, may be used in the production of genetically engineered tomato, cotton, and oilseed rape plants intended for human food and.
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