An introduction to the history of agricultural science on the country

When the Treaty of Rome took effect at the beginning ofagriculture was subsidized in all six member countries. The various price-support mechanisms differed substantially, as did foreign-trade policies and tariff levels.

An introduction to the history of agricultural science on the country

The llama and alpaca were domesticated in the Andean regions of South America by the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. Introduction to Agriculture Notes prepared by: Legumes found in Thessaly and Macedonia are dated as early as BC. Flax was grown and apparently woven into textiles early in the Neolithic Period.

The transition from hunting and food gathering to dependence on food production was gradual, and in a few isolated parts of the world this transition has not yet been accomplished. Crops and domestic meat supplies were augmented by fish and wildfowl as well as by the meat of wild animals.

The farmer began, most probably, by noting which of the wild plants were edible or otherwise useful and learned to save the seed and to replant it in cleared land. Lengthy cultivation of the most prolific and hardiest plants yielded stable strains. Herds of goats and sheep were assembled from captured young wild animals, and those with the most useful traits—such as small horns and high milk production—were bred.

The wild aurochs was the ancestor of European cattle, and an Asian wild ox of the zebu, was the ancestor of the humped cattle of Asia.

Cats, dogs, and chickens were also domesticated very early. Neolithic farmers lived in simple dwellings—caves and small houses of sun baked mud brick or reed and wood. These homes were grouped into small villages or existed as single farmsteads surrounded by fields, sheltering animals and humans in adjacent or joined buildings.

In the Neolithic Period, the growth of cities such as Jericho founded about BC was stimulated by the production of surplus crops. Pastoralism individual country living may have been a later development.

Evidence indicates that mixed farming, combining cultivation of crops and stock rising, was the most common Neolithic pattern. The earliest tools of the farmer were made of wood and stone. They included the stone adz, an ax like tool with blades at right angles to the handle, used for woodworking; the sickle or reaping knife with sharpened stone blades, used to gather grain; the digging stick, used to plant seeds and, with later adaptations, as a spade or hoe; and a rudimentary plow, a modified tree branch used to scratch the surface of the soil and prepare it for planting.

The plow was later adapted for pulling by oxen. The hilly areas of southwestern Asia and the forests of Europe had enough rain to sustain agriculture, but Egypt depended on the annual floods of the Nile River to replenish soil moisture and fertility.

The inhabitants of the Fertile Crescent around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Middle East also depended on annual floods to supply irrigation water.

Drainage was necessary to prevent the erosion of land from the hillsides through which the rivers flowed. The farmers who lived in the area near the Huang He developed a system of irrigation and drainage to control the damage caused to their fields in the flood plain of the meandering river.

Although Neolithic settlements were more permanent than the camps of hunting peoples, villages had to be moved periodically in some areas when the fields lost their fertility from continuous cropping.

This was most necessary in northern Europe, where fields were produced by the slash-and-burn method of clearing. Settlements along the Nile River, however, were more permanent, because the river deposited fertile silt annually.

An introduction to the history of agricultural science on the country

The historical period—known through written and pictured materials, including the Bible; Middle Eastern records and Introduction to Agriculture Notes prepared by: Aqleem Abbas monuments; and Chinese, Greek, and Roman writings—was highlighted by agricultural improvements.

A few high points must serve to outline the development of worldwide agriculture in this era, roughly defined as BC AD For a similar period of development in Central and South America, somewhat later in date Some plants became newly prominent.

Grapes and wine were mentioned in Egyptian records about BCand trade in olive oil and wine was widespread in the Mediterranean area by the 1st millennium BC. Rye and oats were cultivated in northern Europe about BC Many vegetables and fruits, including onions, melons, and cucumbers, were grown by the 3rd millennium BC in Ur now Iraq.

Dates and figs were an important source of sugar in the Middle East, and apples, pomegranates, peaches, and mulberries were grown in the Mediterranean area. Felt was made from the wool of sheep in Central Asia and the Russian steppes. The ox-drawn four-wheeled cart for farm work and two-wheeled chariots drawn by horses were familiar in northern India in the 2nd millennium BC.

Improvements in tools and implements were particularly important. Tools of bronze and iron were longer lasting and more efficient, and cultivation was greatly improved by such aids as the ox-drawn plow fitted with an iron-tipped point, noted in the 10th century BC in Palestine.

In Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC a funnel-like device was attached to the plow to aid in seeding, and other early forms of seed drills were used in China.

Farmers in China further improved efficiency with the invention of a cast-iron moldbar plow. Threshing was also done with animal power in Palestine and Mesopotamia, although reaping, binding, and winnowing were still done by hand.

Egypt retained hand seeding through this period on individual farm plots and large estates alike. Storage methods for oil and grain were improved. Granaries—jars, dry cisterns, silos, and bins containing stored grain—provided food for city populations.

Without adequate food supplies and trade in both food and nonfood items, the high civilizations of Mesopotamia, northern India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome would not have been possible.An Introduction to Agriculture Statistics, April , Boyko and Hill Page 10 example would be validating cattle numbers by comparing the number of births with the number of female animals and imports and exports.

Introduction to the Country of France - Study in France

Introduction to Agriculture are basically notes for Fresh students who have just enrolled in any Agricultural University. It is the science in art of farming including the The history of.

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(PDF) Introduction to Agriculture

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