An analysis of the topic of the disease conditions

Epidemiology Humans are the only known reservoir for Neisseria meningitidis also known as the meningococcus.

An analysis of the topic of the disease conditions

Doctors are called on to deal with many states of affairs. Not all of them, on any theory, are diseases. A doctor who prescribes contraceptives or performs an abortion is not treating a disease.

Although some women cannot risk pregnancy or childbirth for health reasons, women typically use contraception or abortion in the service of autonomy and control over their lives. In addition, it is very difficult to find a philosophically or scientifically interesting cleavage between diseases and other complaints Reznek71— One dominant strand in modern medicine sees a disease as essentially a process that recurs across individuals in slightly different forms: But since a disease is a biological insult, distinguishing it from injury is very difficult.

Perhaps injuries are not processes in the relevant sense but events. This essay assumes that the conceptual issues raised by illnesses, injuries and other medical conditions are similar enough to let us put this demarcation problem aside.

Disability is another important and neglected topic in health and well-being. It will be addressed here only slightly, since it would take us too far afield. Health has received less philosophical attention than disease, and this essay will correspondingly have less to say about it.

The conceptual terrain in the case of health is a little more complex than that of disease; one way of thinking about health says that it is just the absence of disease, so if disease is biological malfunction or abnormality, it follows that a healthy person is someone whose biological systems are all in order.

But another way of looking at health insists that it is not just the absence of disease but the presence of something more; a positive state. According to views like this, we should think in terms not of health and disease alone, but in terms of health, disease and normality. This essay will look at theories of health after first discussing disease.

Naturalism and Constructivism The tendency in recent philosophy has been to see disease concepts as involving empirical judgments about human physiology and normative judgments about human behavior or well-being BloomfieldBoorseEreshefskyCulver and GertThagard First, we have beliefs about the natural functioning of humans—both our common sense expectations about the body and scientific theories of human biology.

Second, we make judgments about whether some particular condition or way of life is or is not undesirable, in some relevant way.

This second set of concerns obviously involves normative criteria, to do with the extent to which a life is unnatural, undesirable or failing to flourish in some way. There is not a clear consensus among writers here.

One important and controversial question is whether the judgments we make concerning our biology are also normative in some way. A further large question concerns the relationship between the two types of judgments, in both medicine and common sense. Another strain in recent scholarship suggests that our normative judgments alone determine who falls under the concepts of health and disease.

This view has been less influential in philosophy, but commands widespread adherence in other areas of the humanities and social sciences e.

KennedyBrown Kitcher—9 summarizes the debate as follows: Some scholars, objectivists about disease, think that there are facts about the human body on which the notion of disease is founded, and that those with a clear grasp of those facts would have no trouble drawing lines, even in the challenging cases.

Their opponents, constructivists about disease, maintain that this is an illusion, that the disputed cases reveal how the values of different social groups conflict, rather than exposing any ignorance of facts, and that agreement is sometimes even produced because of universal acceptance of a system of values.

I will provide a slightly more elaborate taxonomy of analyses of disease,starting with forms of constructivism and the difficulties they face will be discussed. Then naturalism will be similarly treated, before the discussion moves to health.

Before arriving at some qualifications, then, we should have straightforward statements of naturalism and constructivism in hand. Although, since the qualifications are not yet in place, perhaps no theorist would fully endorse these bald versions of the positions. The naturalist conception of disease perhaps most clearly stated in Boorseis that the human body comprises organ systems that have natural functions from which they can depart in many ways.

Some of these departures from normal functioning are harmless or beneficial, but others are not. So to call something a disease involves both a claim about the abnormal functioning of some bodily system and a judgment that the resulting abnormality is a bad one.

Naturalists contend that the determination of bodily malfunction is an objective matter to be determined by science.

They may also argue Boorse that determining whether a malfunction is detrimental to human well-being is also an objective matter, but often they concede that normative considerations are the basis for that judgment. This malfunction could take many forms:Sep 07,  · Browse Infectious diseases news, research and analysis from The Conversation.

This session gives you a sneak peek at some of the top-scoring posters across a variety of topics through rapid-fire presentations. The featured abstracts were chosen by the Program Committee and are marked by a microphone in the online program.

Essay on disease: Pancreatitis diagnosis, treatments, symptoms There are many signs and symptoms for each of the disease. Each of the diseases has its signs and symptoms. Also, there are a number of lab and other diagnostic tests that are used for diagnosis, interventions and treatments of the disease.

ScienceDirect is the world's leading source for scientific, technical, and medical research. Explore journals, books and articles. Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body.

An analysis of the topic of the disease conditions

Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term used to describe disorders that can affect the heart (cardio) and/or the body's system of blood vessels (vascular).

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