The defence of Socrates[ edit ] Socrates begins his legal defence by telling the jury that their minds were poisoned by his enemies, when they the jury were young and impressionable. That his false reputation as a sophistical philosopher comes from his enemies, all of whom are malicious and envious of him, yet must remain nameless — except for the playwright Aristophaneswho lampooned him Socrates as a charlatan-philosopher in the comedy play The Clouds BC. About corrupting the rich, young men of Athens, Socrates argues that deliberate corruption is an illogical action. That the false accusations of his being a corrupter of youth began at the time of his obedience to the Oracle at Delphiand tells how Chaerephon went to the Oracle, to ask her the priestess if there was a man wiser than Socrates.
It appears to record, in many instances, the exact words used by Socrates while making his speech in defense of himself.
To be sure, the words were not recorded at the time they were spoken, but we know that Plato was present at the trial, and hence we may conclude that the account given in the Apology contains the words of Socrates as they were remembered by Plato.
However, we should bear in mind that Plato had been both a pupil and an ardent admirer of Socrates, and for this reason his version of the trial may have been somewhat biased in favor of the one whom he regarded as a truly great hero.
At any rate, we may be fairly certain that, even though Socrates has been to some extent idealized by his pupil, the account given represents what Plato believed to be true about his teacher.
The contents of the dialog include a number of different parts. The first one consists of an introductory statement that Socrates An analysis of the apology from socrates concerning the manner of his speaking. This is followed by an account of the specific accusations made with reference to his life and daily activities.
Socrates replies at some length to each of the charges brought against him. After making his defense, an account is given of his attempt at mitigation of the penalty imposed on him.
Finally, Socrates makes a prophetic rebuke of the judges for supposing they will live at ease and with an untroubled conscience after pronouncing sentence as a penalty for his crimes. The dialog begins with Socrates making a short speech in which he offers an apology for the colloquial style in which he will be making his defense.
His accusers have warned the judges to be on their guard lest they be deceived by the eloquence of Socrates in his attempt to convince them of his innocence. Socrates insists that he makes no claim of being eloquent in his speech. He is not a rhetorician, and they should be ashamed for suggesting that he would try to lead them astray by the force of his eloquence.
The only kind of eloquence for which he has any use is that which sets forth the truth in language so plain that they can all understand. That is a very different kind of eloquence from the one they have implied in their warning to the judges.
Socrates tells them that he will indeed speak the truth, and he implores the judges not to be thinking of the manner of his speech but only of the justice of the cause for which he pleads. In making his defense, Socrates will reply to two kinds of accusations.
The first one is referred to as the older or more ancient accusation, and the second one is the contemporary charge being made by Meletus, Anytus, and others who are present at the trial.
It is the first, or older, accusation that he dreads most of all. The reason for this dread is that his accusers are many and he cannot call them all by name.
Most of them are not present, and thus he is unable to give them the opportunity to reply to what he has to say. The accusations go back over a period of many years and may be summed up in the following words: As an example, he mentions the fact that Aristophanes in his comedy play called The Clouds has referred to a man called Socrates who goes about claiming that he can walk on air and pretending to a lot of other nonsense concerning matters of which there is no element of truth.
While it is quite possible that Aristophanes did not intend these statements to be taken seriously, they have nevertheless contributed toward the unfavorable opinion that has been formed about him. Another factor that has been working against him is the rumor that has been circulated concerning his investigations of things in heaven above and in the earth beneath.
These, too, are based on falsehoods, for he has had no interest in the physical sciences and has never claimed to have any wisdom about matters of this kind. This does not mean that he has any quarrel with the physical scientists.
He recognizes the legitimacy of what they are doing, but he has preferred to give his attention to other matters, especially the ones that have to do with moral conduct and the welfare of the soul. A further explanation of the way in which these rumors were started can be seen in the account of the wisdom that Socrates is said to claim for himself.
The story came about in the following manner. A certain man called Chaerephon had inquired of the oracle of Delphi whether there was anyone wiser than Socrates. The oracle had answered the question in the negative, thus making it clear that Socrates was indeed the wisest of all the men in Athens.
When this was reported to Socrates, he was amazed, for he had never considered himself to be a wise person. To determine whether the assertion made by the oracle was true, he began a series of inquiries and investigations.
He went to a number of different persons, each one of whom claimed to be wise and was so regarded by his fellow citizens.
In each case, the reputation of the individual was an ill-founded one, for upon being questioned and examined by Socrates it became evident that they did not possess the wisdom attributed to them. He went to one man who was a politician and who had the reputation of wisdom, but when Socrates began to talk with him, it became clear that he was not as wise as he had supposed himself to be.
When Socrates pointed this out to him, the result was that the politician began to hate him, and his enmity toward the one who had exposed his ignorance was shared by several of those who were present and over-heard the conversation.
Nevertheless, Socrates concludes that he is better off than the individual whom he has just examined, for that person knows nothing but thinks that he knows, while Socrates neither knows nor thinks that he knows.
The oracle at Delphi was correct in his statement. Socrates is wiser than any of the others because he is aware of his own ignorance and they are not. After his encounter with the politician, Socrates went to one man after another, trying desperately to determine whether the statement made by the oracle was indeed the truth.
He went to the poets, and after asking them to explain some of the most elaborate passages in their own writings, he found they had no understanding of the things they had written.
They even insisted that their poetry was not the product of wisdom but of a kind of inspiration like that of the diviners and soothsayers.Plato is one of the world's best known and most widely read and studied philosophers. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, and he wrote in the middle of the fourth century B.C.E.
in ancient Greece.
Though influenced primarily by Socrates, to the extent that Socrates is. Summary. The Crito records the conversation that took place in the prison where Socrates was confined awaiting his arteensevilla.com is in the form of a dialog between Socrates and Crito, an elderly Athenian who for many years has been a devoted friend of Socrates and a firm believer in his ethical teachings.
Anthologies Warner, Charles D., ed. The Library of the World’s Best Literature. With 5, selections and over 1, essays on primary authors and literary genres, this 20,page anthology stands as a monument of the best critique and editorial expertise of the early twentieth century.
The lord whose oracle is in Delphi neither speaks nor conceals but gives a sign. Heraclitus of Ephesus, quoted by Plutarch, De Pythiae oraculis 21, E, The Presocratic Philosophers, G.S. Kirk & J.E. Raven, Cambridge, , p Unless Plato had already written some short dialogues to illustrate Socrates' technique of questioning (like the Euthyphro), the Apology of Socrates is the earliest.
"The Impiety of Socrates" by M.F. Burnyeat, Ancient Philosophy 17, No. 1, Homer and Hesiod have attributed to the gods everything that is a shame and a reproach among men.
Socrates was an orator and philosopher whose primary interests were logic, ethics and epistemology. In Plato’s Apology of Socrates, Plato recounts the speech that Socrates gave shortly before his death, during the trial in BC in which he was charged with “corrupting the young, and by not believing in the gods in whom the city believes, also .
The Apology is Plato's recollection and interpretation of the Trial of Socrates ( BC). In this dialogue Socrates explains who he is and what kind of life he led. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Analysis of Socrates’ Passage in Apology Essay Words | 4 Pages for not believing in the gods of the state and for speaking with contempt to the high ranking officials of his time (Ober “Gadfly on Trial” 2).